The risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression are not completely known. Porphyromonasgingivalis infection is a risk factor for systemic diseases. We investigated the association of P.gingivalis infection with the risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis progression. Here, hematological tests, periodontal examination, and saliva collection were performed for 164 patients with NAFLD. P.gingivalis was identified in saliva using polymerase chain reaction. Hepatic steatosis and stiffness were evaluated using vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) and magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with NAFLD, P.gingivalis positivity (P.gingivalis ratio ≥ 0.01%) in saliva correlated with liver stiffness determined using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE; p < 0.0001). A P.gingivalis ratio of 0.01% corresponds to 100,000 cells/mL and indicates the proportion of P.gingivalis in the total number of bacteria in the oral cavity. Patients with NAFLD and advanced fibrosis on MRE showed significantly elevated endotoxin activity; those who had > 10 periodontal pockets with depths ≥ 4 mm had significantly increased hepatic stiffness on both VCTE and MRE.
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