A simple and highly sensitive procedure based on the combination of hollow fiber membrane liquid phase microextraction and a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) was developed for pre-concentration and determination of hexavalent chromium in water samples. The hexavalent chromium was pre-concentrated using the HF-LPME technique via ion exchange or a coupled transport process through a supported ionic liquid (Aliquat 336) prior to colorimetric detection with diphenylcarbazide on the µPAD. The violet colour could be seen by the naked eye. Images from the µPADs were scanned using a commercial desktop scanner at 600 dpi resolution. ImageJ software was used for quantitative analysis by measuring the intensity values at green colour channel since it gave the best sensitivity among the RGB colour. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range 10–90 µg L-1, with a limit of detection of 3 µg L-1. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the level of hexavalent chromium spiked into natural water samples at the parts-per-billion (ppb) level, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The developed method was able to improve the detection limit of the conventional µPAD, and was expected to be used for the effective analysis of hexavalent chromium in natural water.
- Colorimetric detection
- Hexavalent chromium
- Hollow fiber membrane liquid phase microextraction
- Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices
ASJC Scopus subject areas