A cause of natural arm-swing in bipedal walking

Yuichiro Toda, Ying Wang, Mamoru Minami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The research of humanoid is widely discussed whether by simulations or real machines. In human bipedal walking, swinging arms in opposite directions is a natural movement. In this research, a model of the humanoid robot, including slipping, bumping, surface-contacting and point-contacting of the foot has been established, and its dynamical equation is derived by the Newton–Euler method. And the natural arm-swing simulation has been produced, which showed that the input torque in yaw rotation of the torso could cause natural arm-swing. “Natural” means that the arm-swinging motion is induced by coupling effects existing in nonlinear dynamics of humanoid robot even though no torques have been input into shoulders. Based on the results, a hypothesis that the vibration in the yaw rotation of the torso caused natural arm swing is proposed. In this paper, we compared the arm-swing movement with or without the input torque of yaw rotation of the torso by using the above humanoid robot model. The simulation data proved the hypothesis to be valid.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-83
Number of pages8
JournalArtificial Life and Robotics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Arm swing
  • Bipedal walking
  • Dynamical
  • Humanoid
  • Newton–Euler Method

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Artificial Intelligence


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