A category approach to predicting the repeated-dose hepatotoxicity of allyl esters

Takashi Yamada, Yushiro Tanaka, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Yuki Sakuratani, Jun Yamada, Eiichi Kamata, Atsushi Ono, Akihiko Hirose, Yasushi Yamazoe, Ovanes Mekenyan, Makoto Hayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


We tested a category approach to predict the hepatotoxic effects of repeated doses of allyl esters using a new database for repeated-dose toxicity. Based on information on hepatotoxic mechanism of allyl acetate, the category was defined as allyl esters that are hydrolyzed to allyl alcohol. Allyl alcohol is readily oxidized to acrolein in the liver, causing hepatotoxicity. Seventeen marketed allyl esters were obtained and grouped into category by identifying or predicting allyl alcohol formation. Allyl esters with a saturated straight alkyl carboxylic acid moiety (allyl acetate, hexanoate and heptanoate as tested species, and allyl butyrate, pentanoate, octanoate, nonanoate and decanoate as untested species) are likely similar in rate of ester hydrolysis, thereby defining subcategory 1. NOAEL and LOAEL for the hepatotoxic effects were estimated at 0.12 and 0.25. mmol/kg/d for the untested species, based on those of allyl acetate. The remaining nine allyl esters with other alkyl or aromatic carboxylic acid moieties were placed in subcategory 2: their hepatotoxicity levels were not predictable due to an unclear match between their degree of structural complexity and rate of hydrolysis. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the category approach for predicting the hepatotoxicity of untested allyl esters with saturated straight alkyl chains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-195
Number of pages7
JournalRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Adverse outcome pathway
  • Allyl ester
  • Category approach
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Repeated-dose toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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