A catechol antioxidant protocatechuic acid potentiates inflammatory leukocyte-derived oxidative stress in mouse skin via a tyrosinase bioactivation pathway

Yoshimasa Nakamura, Koji Torikai, Hajime Ohigashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The modifying effects of topical application of a catechol antioxidant protocatechuic acid (PA) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammatory responses in mouse skin were investigated. Treatment with a high dose (20,000 nmol) of PA, based on time of application, modifies inflammatory responses in the skin of the B6C3F1 mouse, a resistant strain to inflammatory response induction by TPA, but shows much higher tyrosinase expression than that of an albino mouse. The responsibility of a large amount of PA-induced leukocyte infiltration to an inflamed region in a B6C3F1 mouse is more sensitive than that of an ICR albino mouse. When ICR mice were treated with TPA (1.6 nmol) twice weekly for 5 weeks to induce chronic inflammatory responses, pretreatment with 1600 nmol PA 30 min prior to each TPA treatment significantly enhanced the inflammatory responses including edema formation, leukocyte infiltration, and the level of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances. The dose-dependency was closely parallel to the results of a tumor promotion study of PA previously reported. Further, the treatment of PA alone resulted in tyrosinase-dependent contact hypersensitivity in ICR mouse skin. In addition, the in vitro study of cytotoxicity demonstrated that bioactivation by tyrosinase but not myeloperoxidase of PA significantly enhanced cytotoxicity and intracellular glutathione consumption. We conclude that the tyrosinase-derived reactive quinone intermediate(s) of PA, which binds nucleophilic residues of proteins including sulfhydryl group and conjugates of which are recognized as haptens, was partially involved in alteration of the cellular immune functions including oxygen radical-generating leukocytes migration to inflamed regions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)967-978
Number of pages12
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Volume30
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2001
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Free radicals
  • Inflammation
  • Mouse skin
  • Phenolic antioxidant
  • Protocatechuic acid
  • TPA
  • Tyrosinase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)

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