The high-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of incompressible turbulence with numbers of grid points up to 40963 have been executed on the Earth Simulator (ES). The DNSs are based on the Fourier spectral method, so that the equation for mass conservation is accurately solved. In DNS based on the spectral method, most of the computation time is consumed in calculating the three-dimensional (3D) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which requires huge-scale global data transfer and has been the major stumbling block that has prevented truly high-performance computing. By implementing new methods to efficiently perform the 3D-FFT on the ES, we have achieved DNS at 16.4 Tflops on 20483 grid points. The DNS yields an energy spectrum exhibiting a wide inertial subrange, in contrast to previous DNSs with lower resolutions, and therefore provides valuable data for the study of the universal features of turbulence at large Reynolds number.